Bulk storage terminal operations: How to reduce costs and meet air quality standards
A bulk storage terminal operation must be cost-effective to meet changing economic requirements and must contain emissions to meet air quality standards. Considering your shipping arrangement, the ship unloader, and the storage terminal itself as interrelated parts of the whole operation can help you ensure the terminal operates cost-effectively. Selecting pneumatic ship unloaders that enclose the material during transfer can help contain emissions. This article concentrates on bulk storage terminal design principles and equipment choices for import operations [though many of the principles also apply to export operations]. Sections discuss storage terminals, ship unloaders and other equipment, factors to consider in designing a cost-effective operation, and an example of such an operation.
Bulk material storage terminals in US shipping ports [and foreign storage terminals operated by US companies] are used primarily for import operations. The storage terminals handle many materials, including cement, alumina, ilmenite, iron ore, fly ash, soda ash, and limestone. In a typical import operation, a bulk carrier ship docks near the storage terminal, where equipment unloads the material from the ship's hold and transfers the material into the storage terminal. Equipment then transfers the material from the storage terminal to a packaging line or directly into trucks or railcars for shipment.